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10/10/2012 Nitrogen cocktail drinker's stomach removed Authorities say a British teen has had her stomach removed after she ingested a cocktail prepared with liquid nitrogen, an exotic ingredient often used by bartenders to add a touch of drama to their drinks.

British media say 18-year-old Gaby Scanlon was out with her friends Thursday night in the northern England city of Lancaster when she was hospitalised after having a drink prepared with liquid nitrogen, a super-cooled version of the harmless gas.

Liquid nitrogen evaporates rapidly at room temperature, creating a cauldron effect as water condenses around the glass.

It's not clear how exactly Scanlon managed to ingest the liquid local police have said they're investigating but public health officials say it's time to take a second look at its use in bars.

The bar is not thought to have made an error in preparing the drink but The Telegraph newspaper quoted Professor Peter Barham, of the University of Bristol's School of Physics stressing the proper use of liquid nitrogen.

The temperature of the liquid is around -196C and if it is not used properly it can cause frostbite or cryogenic burns, he warned.

"As with any very hot or very cold liquid proper safety measures must be taken,'' he told The Telegraph. ''Just as no-one would drink boiling water or oil or pour it over themselves, so no-one should ingest liquid nitrogen.

"Liquid nitrogen can be used safely in the preparation of foods. However, since it is not safe to ingest liquid nitrogen due care must be taken to ensure that the liquid has all evaporated before serving any food or drink that was prepared with liquid nitrogen.''

06/09/2012 Children feature in poison centre inquiries Spare a thought for the safety-conscious parent who attached a child safety lock to their fridge, only to find their child had swallowed part of the lock's backing paper.

That incident was one of the thousands of inquiries made to the Dunedin-based National Poisons Centre, where staff advise on anything from toddlers who have ingested a contraceptive pill to people who have been bitten by a redback spider.

Figures released to the Otago Daily Times show the centre received more than 33,000 inquiries for the year ending June 30, amounting to about 90 a day, and a similar number of inquiries came via its hospital-only database.

Almost a third of those inquiries related to therapeutic drugs, including antidepressants (646), opioids (469) and anti-inflammatories (1172). Children featured heavily in the figures.

Operations manager Lucy Shieffelbien said a particular trend the centre had noted this year was the number of children being poisoned by highly toxic nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) such as gum or lozenges.

"Often they are very accessible to small children, who cannot tell the difference between NRTs and actual lollies/gum. Whilst we applaud anyone's efforts to [quit] smoking, we also need to remind them to store their gum or lozenges out of the reach of children," she said.

Information about a child who had ingested an illegal substance would not be reported to authorities as calls remained confidential, and callers would receive "prompt and appropriate advice as the health and wellbeing of the child is paramount".

This year was busy, particularly in regards to information and media requests relating to synthetic cannabinoids and huffing, Ms Shieffelbien said.

"Often we notice a correlation when something is in the media and we get a spike in calls."

About 75% of calls were in relation to actual exposure, and "we often get calls from distraught or panicked parents who are holding a child that is crying".

"We realise that children are curious little creatures and you cannot supervise them 24/7."

For staff it was often about calming a stressed caller, so they could take in the medical advice they were receiving, she said.

The centre was often at the forefront of reporting trends, and regularly advised authorities such as the Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and the Environmental Protection Authority.

When those trends involved a product of a less toxic nature, then the manufacturer was contacted, as "it could be something as simple as the colour of the product that attracts children".

She confirmed some companies rang the centre to inquire if any calls had been received about their products.

She declined to name the household products that regularly topped their lists.

"It is not about naming and shaming."

A common call to the centre was for advice after a child had swallowed non-toxic silica gel - the small packets included as a drying agent with some items, such as shoes - which presented a choking hazard.

Other dangerous items around the home included nail polish, hand sanitiser, toilet sanitisers, dishwashing liquid, weedkiller, rat bait, snail pellets and plants such as black nightshade.

The key message from the National Poisons Centre was: "poisoning - you can't just kiss it better".

An estimated 75% of all poisoning inquiries could be treated safely at home with the correct advice.

28/08/2012 Plea for vigilance after latest huffing tragedy A man who performed CPR on a teen before she was pronounced dead after huffing butane says if teens gave any thought about what this did to their parents, "they just wouldn't do it".

Christchurch man Rene Heyde was the first on the scene when 17-year-old Poihaere Eru was found lying on the side of a Christchurch road. She had been huffing butane along with two friends, aged 14 and 16.

Heyde, described the scene as "surreal".

"I was just driving home from work about 4.30pm and I saw a girl lying down and there was another girl leaning over her. I thought it may have been a fight or scuffle first off, and I asked the other girl what happened and she wouldn't tell me.

"Another lady stopped and helped. We just got her into the recovery position while I called the ambulance, but then I was performing CPR while we waited for them. I was performing CPR for about 20 minutes while the ambulance got there and sorted themselves.

He said by that stage, the girl's mother had arrived.

"It was just heartbreaking. She was just there talking to her baby - willing her to live."

"I was sort of detached at the time and it was surreal. It wasn't until afterwards that I started to realise what had happened.

"I think it had really just shut down her brain."

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TOXINZ ( is the National Poisons Centre's Internet database containing information regarding toxic compounds and the management of poisoned patients.

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Welcome to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre

Kids - Click here for games The National Poisons Centre is a 24/7 Poisons Information Service available to all New Zealanders.

Provided by the Ministry of Health and ACC, the NPC maintains an accurate and up-to-date database of almost all poisonous substances in NZ and Australia, and provides professional and timely advice during poisoning incidents.

Vomiting - First Aid for Poisoning? An Incorrect Assumption

Vomiting - First Aid for Poisoning? An Incorrect Assumption

There are many old or out of date first aid methods that can actually make the situation worse ,and unfortunately misinformed neighbours or out of date labels are out there trying to provide you with incorrect advice. Remember you have plenty of time to get the correct up-to-date information from informed professionals, before doing anything yourself.

Isn't Vomiting the Correct First Aid for Poisoning?

The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NPC) does not recommend vomiting as first aid for toxic substance.

There are several reasons for this:
  • It is not very effective at removing poisons from the stomach
  • Vomit or poison can sometimes go down the wrong way into the lungs, causing lung injury. Especially: Products that can froth (e.g. shampoo, dishwashing liquid), Products that are light, and easily inhaled (e.g. petrol, oils) & Children, who often become drowsy after vomiting
  • Some products (e.g. cleaners, dishwasher powders) can cause burns to the throat. Vomiting doubles the chance of burns occurring, as the throat is exposed to the poison twice.
  • It can cause the poison to be absorbed into the body more quickly and in larger amounts, as the pressure on the stomach forces the poison to be absorbed into the body.
  • It can interfere with other methods of treatment that are more effective.
  • The method of inducing vomiting can be more dangerous than the poison, and sometimes vomiting can be very hard to stop, once it has begun.

There have been many cases where children have been caused far greater harm from inducing vomiting than from the poison exposure. For example giving children salt water can be very dangerous in large amounts, and forcing an adult finger down a child's throat can badly scratch it, potentially causing swelling.

Never try to neutralize a poison by giving raw eggs, detergent, salt water, mustard, vinegar, baking soda, milk of magnesia or citrus fruit juices as an "antidote" or to cause vomiting.

Syrup of Ipecac is NOT a routine treatment for poisoning. It was used previously to induce vomiting, and is no longer used for all the reasons listed above.

Sometimes, a person may vomit once or twice spontaneously. If this occurs, it is OK to give them a few sips of water to drink and then seek medical advice.

Do Large Amounts of Fluid Dilute the Poison?

What kind, and how much fluid the person can have will depend on what they have swallowed. Do NOT give any fluids until you check with your Poisons Information Centre or a Doctor first.

Giving fluids incorrectly:
  • can cause vomiting
  • In some cases fluid can help the chemical or medicine absorb into the body and cause poisoning.
  • Too much fluid can also cause some products to froth; the person may inhale the froth, causing lung injury

Milk should not be given without advice from a medical professional. Milk can be helpful in some cases (e.g. Arum Lily, toothpaste), but in other cases can help the chemical or medicine absorb into the body and increase the risk of poisoning (e.g. petrol, oils, menthol).

Other fluids such as juice, fizzy drinks or alcohol should not be given without advice from a medical professional as they may further irritate the stomach or increase the risk of poisoning.

If the Poisons Information Centre or Doctor tell you it is okay to give fluids, then 1/4 to 1/2 a cup for a child and 1 to 2 cups for an adult is usually enough.

It is sometimes recommended that the person keep up their fluid intake for 24 hours. This is only in cases where a substance affects the kidneys, or where fluids may help the substance pass through the body faster.

Remember you have plenty of time to get the correct information from informed professionals, before doing anything yourself. Calls to the Poison Centre take only a couple of minutes, and will provide you with the appropriate course of action, saving you time and anxious moments overall.


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University of Otago NZ National Poisons Centre

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